Spin-offs Creation of new activities Spin-offs are new companies created on the basis of technologies or know-how developed by a public research organisation. The human dimension is very important: the transfer of a technology is often reflected in the transfer of researchers, and entrepreneurs are needed to manage the new businesses. Spin-offs are another way of producing the proof of principle of inventions and to valorise the results of public research. Technologies which can be exploited by existing businesses without changing their operating model do not call for the creation of spin-offs. This type of research result can be valorised faster and more easily through a licensing process. However, spin-offs are highly useful vectors for valorisation in at least two cases: to establish proof of principle for a new technology, if this requires substantial means to explore a new exploitation model, which existing companies might hesitate to implement without proof of feasibility This text is based on a report by Dr Gilles Capart.