Earth Observation Programmes The European Space Agency (ESA) has been dedicated to observing the Earth from space ever since the launch of its first meteorological mission Meteosat back in 1977. Following the success of this first mission, the subsequent series of satellites e.g. ERS-1/-2 and Envisat have been providing an invaluable data about the Earth, its climate and changing environment. ESA's Living Planet Programme encompasses 2 main elements: a science and research element which includes the Earth Explorer missions, and the Earth Watch element designed to facilitate the delivery of Earth Observation data for their use in operational services e.g. meteorological missions. These 2 elements are spread into 2 different programmes: Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP) Earth Watch Programme (EWP) Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP) The Earth Observation Envelope Programme is the backbone programme for implementing the ESA Earth Observation Strategy 2040. This strategy has 3 main objectives: Observe: develop and provide observations to better understand the complexity of our planet and monitor its health. Understand: enable improved predictions of the physical interaction of society with the Earth system. Decide: inform decision makers and citizens on scenarios and consequences of political and economic decisions regarding our planet. For fulfilling these objectives, the European Space Agency and its Earth Observation Directorate has defined the following 4 core activities: Preparatory activities relating to innovative technologies: preparation for all classes of missions and instruments. Mission Development: Implementation / operations of “Earth Explorer” missions (scientific missions). Mission Management: Mission operations, data acquisition, management, archiving and access to users. EO Science for Society: User engagement, development of services addressing societal challenges. In order to implement these core activities, EOEP is split in 4 blocs which are respectively: Block 1 or Future Missions is dedicated to Mission Preparation and Instrument Pre-Development covering the preparatory activities for science (Earth Explorers and EO Opportunity missions), Copernicus (Sentinel), meteorological missions, and possible candidate Earth Watch missions; Block 2 or Mission Development is currently including EE-7 (Biomass), EE-8 (FLEX), EE-9 (a call for Proposal is currently open) and the Copernicus Space Component Evolution; Block 3 or Mission Management is dedicated to EE Phase E2 Management, EE L2 Products and Generic PDGS Development e.g. SMOS, CryoSat, Swarm, ADM-Aeolus, EarthCARE missions; Block 4 or EO Science for Society is dedicated to Scientific Data Exploitation including activities for enabling continued scientific exploitation of EO data, to EO Exploitation Platforms via the implementation of the “EO Innovation Europe” concept (ESA EO ground segment evolution strategy) and the establishment of an open, non-monolithic network of EO Exploitation Platforms (thematic / regional …), and to EO for Sustainable Development together with International Financing Institutions (WB, ADB…) and including also Marine Resources, Risk Management and Disaster Reduction, Energy, Forest Management, Ecosystems, Fragile States, Climate Resilience and Proofing. Earth Watch Programme This element is designed to facilitate the delivery of Earth observation data for use in operational services and constituted in several components: the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) the GMES Space Component (GSC) the Climate Change Initiative (GMECV+) the InCubed programme the ALTIUS mission the Proba-V exploitation Meteorological missions These missions are developed in cooperation with EUMETSAT that operates a fleet of meteorological satellites and their related ground systems to deliver reliable and cost-efficient data, images and products. ESA contributes to the development of the new satellites for Meteosat Third Generation and MetOp Second Generation. GMES Space Component (GSC) The success of Copernicus is achieved largely through a well-engineered (GMES) Space Component for the provision of Earth-observation data to feed into a range of services for monitoring the environment and supporting civil security activities. The GMES Space Component under ESA responsibility comprises satellites called Sentinels and instrumentations. The Sentinels carry a range of technologies, such as radar and multi-spectral imaging instruments for land, ocean and atmospheric monitoring: Sentinel-1 provides all-weather, day and night radar imagery for land and ocean services; Sentinel-2 provides high-resolution optical imagery for land services; Sentinel-3 provides high-accuracy optical, radar and altimetry data for marine and land services; Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5 will be instruments carried on the next generation of meteorological satellites, namely Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) and MetOp Second Generation, providing data for atmospheric composition monitoring from geostationary orbit and polar orbit, respectively; Sentinel-5 Precursor will bridge the gap between Envisat (Sciamachy data in particular) and Sentinel-5; Sentinel-6 will provide radar altimetry data to measure global sea-surface height, primarily for operational oceanography and for climate studies. Climate Change Initiative / GMECV+ ESA has developed the Climate Change Initiative (GMECV) to generate, preserve and give access to long-term data sets of the Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) and make them freely available to climate research and modelling communities worldwide. GMECV+ is dedicated to extend, improve global records of Essential Climate Variables (ECV) to support climate science and policy. The current selected ECVs are the following: Ocean Salinity, Sea State, Above Ground Biomass, Snow Cover, Lakes, Long-lived Greenhouse Gases, Precursors Supporting the Ozone and Aerosol ECVs, High-Resolution Land Cover, Land Surface Temperature, Water Vapour. InCubed The InCubed element is enabling European industry to realise innovative technology and service developments for commercialization in the new space environment Space 4.0. InCubed is dedicated to European economic partners competitiveness in the new space environment, new opportunities for industry to mitigate high-risk developments, novel partnership models with industry and empowering industry in the commercialisation of new technologies and services developed in partnership with ESA. ALTIUS The ALTIUS element is targeting to develop and operate a small mission dedicated to the operational monitoring of stratospheric ozone profiles. ALTIUS data would secure the continuation of long-time data series for ozone Essential Climate Variable used in a global change context. Proba-V exploitation The Proba-V ['V' stands for Vegetation] mission provides multispectral images to study the evolution of the vegetation cover on a daily and global basis. The satellite was developed in GSTP while the exploitation is in EWP. Initially thinking to be operational until Q1/2015, The Proba-V mission was extended at least until the end of October 2019.